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When aldosterone is blocked diclofenac gel 20gm on line, sodium is excreted along with water and potassium is retained cheap 20gm diclofenac gel visa. These drugs cause little change in cardiac output or heart rate and lower peripheral resistance buy 20gm diclofenac gel otc. They are used primarily to treat hypertension; some of the agents are also effective in treating heart failure. Angioedema is very similar to urticaria, with which it often coexists and over- laps. The swellings occurs especially in the lips and other parts of the mouth and throat, the eyelids, the genitals, and the hands and feet. Angioedema is life-threatening if swelling in the mouth or throat makes it difficult to breathe. Less often the sheer amount of swelling means that so much fluid has moved out of the blood circulation that blood pressure drops dangerously. As discussed previously in this chapter, calcium channel blockers decrease calcium levels and promote vasodilation. Such combinations include benazepril with amlodipine (Lotrel), enalapril with diltiazem (Teczem), enalapril with felodipine (Lexxel), and trandolapril with verapamil (Tarka). Diuretics lower blood pressure and decrease peripheral and pulmonary edema in congestive heart failure and renal or liver disorders by inhibiting sodium and water reabsorption from the kidney tubules resulting in increased urine flow (diuresis). It moves through blood vessels eventually causing a blockage—called a thromboem- bolism—resulting in decreased blood flow (ischemia) that causes death (necro- sis) of tissues in the effected area. Thromboembolisms disintegrate naturally in about two weeks through the fibrinolytic mechanism, which breaks down fibrin. An acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) can be caused by a thromboembolism block- ing a coronary artery. The ischemic (without oxygen) tissue becomes necrotic (dies) if left with- out an oxygen supply. Thrombolytics prevent or minimize necrosis that results from the blocked artery and therefore decreases hospitalization time. After thrombolytic treatment, the patient is evaluated for cardiac bypass or coronary angioplasty procedures. Thrombolytics are also used for pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and noncoronary arterial occlusion from an acute thromboembolism. Anaphylaxis (vascu- lar collapse) occurs more frequently with streptokinase than with the other thrombolytics. The hemorrhage is stopped by using aminocaproic acid (Amicar) to inhibit plasminogen activation. The use of heparin with thrombolytic medica- tions is commonly done and can prevent formation of new clots but requires intensive care and close monitoring of the patient. A correct dose of medication for a pediatric patient is determined by (a) the patient’s weight. Barnabas Health Care System, Livingston, New Jersey The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Copyright © 2004 by Tova Navarra All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. For is not the essence of medicine to This path was one of self-exploration and develop- teach people to improve and maintain their ment. In fact, the Latin root for doctor, docere, and began to appreciate the beneﬁts of improved means “to teach. After a num- start premed classes in summer school less than a ber of years of assisting, several fellow instructors week after graduation. I was in col- Over the next year and a half, I completed lege at the time and frequently ﬁnished classes and the premed requirements and was ultimately immediately raced down to the school to teach or accepted to Boston University School of Medicine. I found those days extremely challenging and During that time, I continued on my path of self- rewarding. I continued teaching martial arts and However, I soon discovered that my parents and began to question why conventional medicine did family did not fully appreciate my vision of my life not often utilize methods from other healing tra- as a martial arts instructor. I had seen multiple examples of problems, always supportive, they encouraged me to consider such as back pain, improved through the use of other avenues of employment. Given that my t’ai ch’i, or asthma through the use of various father was a lawyer and I was a history major, law breathing exercises. I had seen multiple students seemed a reasonable way to make a living while lose weight, improve their control of stress, and in continuing my career as a martial artist. To me a mar- through the application process, I was fortunate tial arts instructor, nothing felt more meaningful enough to be accepted for admission. To me, this was the essence of contemplate graduation from college and the good medicine. I simply did not feel passion- realized that teaching patients to improve or main- ate about becoming a lawyer. I began to reevaluate tain their health was a part of medicine that often what I did feel passionate about. What was it about got lost in trying to provide patients with the latest teaching martial arts that made me feel so fulﬁlled? I also realized that others were less than teaching and I enjoyed helping people improve understanding of my desire to expand the usual ix x The Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine treatment options to include “alternative” meth- is just now being researched and shown to be effec- ods. One day, during my second year of residency, tive for many ailments, such as nausea caused by the chairman of medicine asked me what I planned chemotherapy or pregnancy. I told him that I was such as ma huang (or ephedra) to assist with weight interested in alternative medicine, to which he loss may be efﬁcacious but when used improperly responded, “Show me the evidence,” and quickly are potentially dangerous (there have been more changed the subject. Other treatments are Although I was somewhat disappointed by this newly invented or conceived.
Squalene is an important biological precursor of many triterpenoids buy diclofenac gel 20 gm cheap, one of which is cholesterol cheap diclofenac gel 20 gm free shipping. The ﬁrst step in the conversion of squalene to lanosterol is epoxidation of the 2 discount 20 gm diclofenac gel,3-double bond of squalene. Acid-catalysed ring opening of the epoxide initiates a series of cyclizations, resulting in the formation of protesterol cation. Elimination of a C-9 proton leads to the 1,2- hydride and 1,2-methyl shifts, resulting in the formation of lanosterol, which in turn converted to cholesterol by enzymes in a series of 19 steps. The pill is an oral contraceptive containing synthetic derivatives of the female sex hormones, progesterone and oestrogen. The two most important birth-control pills are norethindrone and ethynyloestradiol. Many synthetic steroids have been found to be much more potent than natural steroids. For example, the contraceptive drug, norethindrone is better than progesterone in arresting (terminating) ovulation. They are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, thus have the same muscle-building effect as testosterone. There are more than 100 different anabolic steroids which, vary in structure, duration of action, relative effects and toxicities. They are used to treat people suffering from traumas accompanied by muscle dete- rioration. The use of anabolic steroid can lead to a number of dangerous side- effects, including lowered levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, which beneﬁts the heart, and elevated levels of harmful low density lipopro- tein, stimulation of prostate tumours, clotting disorders and liver problems. Steroid hormones produce their physiological effects by binding to steroid hormone receptor proteins. The binding of steroids to their receptors causes changes in gene transcription and cell function. From biological and physiological viewpoints, probably the most important ster- oids are cholesterol, the steroid hormones, and their precursors and metabo- lites. Cholesterol, a common component of animal cell membranes, is an important steroid alcohol. This condition results in various heart diseases, strokes and high blood pressure, and a high level of cholesterol can be life-threatening. A number of vertebrate hormones, which govern a number of physiological functions, from growth to reproduction, are biosynthesized from cholesterol. Much research is currently underway to determine whether a correlation exists between cholesterol levels in the blood and diet. Cholesterol not only comes from the diet, but is also synthesized in the body from carbohydrates and proteins as well as fat. Therefore, the elimination of cholesterol rich foods from the diet does not necessarily lower blood cholesterol levels. Some studies have found that if certain unsaturated fats and oils are substituted for saturated fats the blood cholesterol level decreases. Male sex hormones are testosterone and 5a-dihydrotestosterone, also known as androgens, which are secreted by the testes. The primary male hormone, testosterone, is respon- sible for the development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty. The two most important female sex hormones are oestradiol and oestrone, also known as oestrogens(estrogens). Oestrogen, along with progester- one, regulates changes occurring in the uterus and ovaries known as the menstrual cycle. Many of the steroid hormones are ketones, including testosterone and progesterone. The male and female hormones have only slight differences in structure, but yet have very different physiological effects. For example, the only difference between testosterone and progesterone is the substituent at C-17. The most important mineralo- corticoid is aldosterone, an aldehyde as well as a ketone, which regulates the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the kidney, and increases the loss of potassium ions. Aldosterone is secreted when blood sodium ion levels are too low to cause the kidney to retain sodium ions. If sodium levels are elevated, aldosterone is not secreted, so some sodium will be lost in the urine and water. These reactions are completed in the liver by taking fatty acids from lipid storage cells and amino acids from body proteins to make glucose and glycogen. Cortisol and its ketone derivative, cortisone, are potent anti- inﬂammatory agents. Cortisone or similar synthetic derivatives such as prednisolone, the active metabolite of prednisone, are used to treat inﬂam- matory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and bronchial asthma. There are many side-effects with the use of cortisone drugs, so their use must be monitored carefully. Prednisolone is designed to be a substitute for cortisone, which has much greater side-effects than prednisolone. Phytosterols found in plants have many applications as food additives and in medicine and cosmetics. Ergosterol is a component of fungal cell membranes, serving the same function that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
Oranges cheap diclofenac gel 20 gm overnight delivery, grapefruit discount diclofenac gel 20 gm with mastercard, lemons generic diclofenac gel 20gm with mastercard, and limes offer a wide range of nutrients (vitamin C, folate, and ﬁbre). Supplements of lutein have been shown to improve vision in those with macular degeneration and prevent disease progression. One to two serv- ings of kale or collard greens per week provide the recommended amount of lutein and zeaxanthin. Other food sources include spinach, broccoli, and leeks, but they contain a lesser amount. Preliminary research also shows that these compounds may help lower cholesterol, improve gum health, prevent ulcers, and prevent brain damage after a stroke. Health authorities recommend consuming Functional Foods | 35 no more than six meals per year of farmed salmon. To obtain all the beneﬁts, eat the milled ﬂaxseed or get whole seeds and crush them in a food processor or coffee grinder. Store milled seeds in the refrigerator or freezer in an opaque, airtight container; they will be stable for 90 days. Studies have found beneﬁts with as little as 900 mg of garlic per day, which is approximately equivalent to one clove. Clinical studies have validated its beneﬁts for preventing the symptoms of motion sickness (especially seasickness) and in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnan- cy. The active compounds in ginger, called gingerols, have potent anti-inﬂammatory effects, making it helpful in the treatment of arthritis and other inﬂammatory condi- tions. Choose fresh ginger over the dry (powder) form to maximize intake of the active compounds. This compound has been found to reduce the risk of certain cancers, reduce the size of existing tumours, and inhibit tumour growth. It also sup- ports heart function by lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of fatal heart attacks. Most studies evaluating the health beneﬁts of green tea in- volved drinking 750–2,500 mL daily. Black tea, white tea, Oolong tea, and other teas derived from the plant Camellia sinesis may offer similar health beneﬁts but are not as widely researched. Studies have found that 3 g of beta-glucan daily can reduce total cholesterol by an average of 5 percent. This 36 | Chapter 3 amount can be found in approximately 60 g of oatmeal or 40 g of oat bran. Powerful sulphur compounds in onions are responsible for their pungent odour and for many of their health beneﬁts. Onions provide a concentrated source of the ﬂavonoid quercitin, which helps reduce inﬂammation and may halt the growth of cancer. Cooking meats with onions may help reduce the amount of carcinogens produced when meat is cooked at high heat. In general, the more pungent an onion, the more active compounds and health beneﬁts it has. Research suggests that consuming 25 g of soy protein daily can provide a signiﬁcant cholesterol-lowering effect. Aside from soybeans and tofu, you can get the beneﬁts of soy protein by eating soy nuts, soy milk, soy yogurt, and bars and shakes con- taining soy protein. Lycopene is also present in tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, which contain a higher amount of lycopene than fresh toma- toes. To obtain 10 mg of lycopene, you would have to eat about 10–15 raw tomatoes, 60 mL (2 oz. Lycopene is also found in papaya, strawberries, watermelon, guava, and pink grapefruit. These active cultures also help digest the naturally occurring sugar (lac- tose) in dairy products that causes bloating and diarrhea in some people. Avoid the “diet” or “light” yogurts, since they are sweetened with aspartame, a chemical whose safety in food is questionable. For this reason those looking for the consistent beneﬁts of probiotics often opt for supplements. Supplements often provide a standardized amount of the active compounds, they are easy to take, and are a great way to complement the diet. In this chapter I will share with you my 10 principles for a healthy diet, elements that I recommend based on current science for optimal health, energy, and disease prevention. Items from foreign countries may contain higher levels of pesticides and bacteria. To preserve the nutrients in your food, minimize storage time and cooking or reheating. Choose whole-grain (brown rice, multigrain breads) over the reﬁned and pro- cessed products. Reﬁned grains (white bread) have most of the vitamins, minerals, and ﬁbre removed. Quality protein sources include free-range and organic meat and poultry, legumes, nuts, seeds, and tofu. If you are following a vegetarian diet, be sure to incorpo- rate a variety of plant-based proteins to ensure that all essential amino acids are consumed. Consume health-promoting fats from ﬁsh, nuts, seeds, and quality oils (hemp, ﬂaxseed, canola, olive, sunﬂower, and safﬂower). Avoid or minimize eating fast/processed foods, as they are typically high in calo- ries, poor in nutritional value, and laden with potentially dangerous chemicals and preservatives. Whether your goal is weight loss or better health, stay away from the latest fad and make healthier food choices.
Each ﬂower or plant addresses at a point in their lives where they feel stuck— one or more emotional imbalances: unable to find a way to move purchase diclofenac gel 20gm without prescription. He was on the faculty of the Rescue Remedy is a combination of ﬁve ﬂower Louisiana State University School of Medicine purchase 20 gm diclofenac gel amex, essences: star of Bethlehem discount 20gm diclofenac gel visa, rock rose, impatiens, Department of Psychiatry, and studied the cherry plum, and clematis. For 12 years used remedy, it treats feelings of panic, mental he served as president of the Himalayan Institute, numbness, shock, terror, fear of ﬂying, response to and for 18 years as director of its Combined Ther- startling noise—any emotional state of emergency apy Program, in which he developed models of 18 Banerjee, P. This book was originally published in 1979): “The close interrelation between your 1931. The potential Barral visceral manipulation A system of body- exists for thought processes to lead both to disease work that is geared to releasing restrictions and and to good health. This has over his or her physical condition, as a start- therapy is reported to enhance the entire body’s ing point for the rationale of behavioral medicine. In addition, Barral’s to pain and pain relief, and that symptoms of cer- modality may facilitate the release of internalized tain diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, emotion. He discovered that the organs have a and colitis are clearly at risk of being aggravated five- to eight-cycle-per-minute rhythm of move- by psychological stress. However, even then the risk nique involves the use of light, precise mechanical versus beneﬁt principle should be applied. You force, which rebalances the organ and helps should not allow yourself to become convinced revive its normal function. Is it not foolish to spend healthy years worried about disease that Bates Method for Improving Eyesight A relax- is not present and may never occur? Many indi- ation system geared toward restoring the natural viduals in previous generations appeared to have use of the eyes and relearning to see developed by faith in their own health. There will be sity and of the College of Physicians and Surgeons enough time for you to work with your physician in New York, Bates practiced at Bellevue, Harlem and to learn how to adjust to an illness if it occurs. You have a right to expect to be as well as pos- the New York Eye Inﬁrmary and taught ophthal- sible for as long as possible. In 1920, Bates wrote The Cure of Imperfect Eyesight by Treatment Without Glasses Beinﬁeld, Harriet, and Korngold, Efrem Pio- (New York: Central Fixation Publishing Co. Bird), which presented his the- medicine in the United States and authors of ory that sight can be deliberately and naturally Between Heaven and Earth: A Guide to Chinese Medicine improved after being diminished by eyestrain, ten- (New York: Ballantine Books, 1991). An individual is connected to sensors that Network and a Harvard Medical School graduate. At a Benson, a medical doctor and chief of the Division time of stress, these signals are recorded by the of Behavioral Medicine at the Deaconess Hospital, machine to inform the person how the body han- teaches at Andover Newton Theological School and dled that stress. The goal of biofeedback is to help conducts medical research, lectures widely, and has recognize these reactions and learn to alter them written several books, including The Relaxation through relaxation techniques. Biofeedback is use- Response (New York: William Morrow, 1975); The ful in reducing stress as a trigger for physical disor- Mind/Body Effect (New York: Simon & Schuster, ders and disease. Patients of biofeedback are 1979); Beyond the Relaxation Response (New York: usually taught various breathing techniques as a Times Books, 1984); Your Maximum Mind (New way to overcome anxiety and other stress York: Times Books, 1987); and The Wellness Book responses. This is sometimes referred to as “passive (New York: Fireside, 1993) (with Eileen M. Benson lives in Lexington, to pay attention to and relax the muscles while Massachusetts. Oral acupuncture, bioentrainment The principle that the brain which involves the injection of saline solution, weak responds to oscillating light, sound, or magnetic- local anesthetics, or a combination of homeopathic ﬁeld energies through “entraining,” or “condition- remedies into acupoints in the mucous membrane, ing,” itself to the frequency of a particular energy. Mouth balancing is a modality that diagnoses is also used to treat seizure activity and memory and cranial structural problems that may cause illness in vision problems, among other disorders. The middle portion (emotion) corre- ing treatment includes the use of corrective sponds to the circulation, and the lower portion orthopedic braces to be worn in the mouth. Nose, pulse, and hand maps are also used by practition- blood cleansing A one- to two-month diet plan ers to identify disorders. Among the various plans is one that advocates using fresh, organic produce whenever possible; body unit A system of measurement that corre- drinking pau d’arco and other teas, green drinks, sponds to the body’s acupuncture points. One unit and specially prepared juices made from aloe is equal to the width of the second joint of the vera, carrot, papaya, and other ingredients; doing thumb, and three body units is equal to the breadth weekly colonic irrigation; avoiding meat, dairy of the second, third, fourth, and ﬁfth ﬁngers held and fried foods, saturated fats, salt, sugars, sweet- together. Each major body segment has a certain eners, sodas, artificial drinks, and canned, frozen, number of body units. For example, ﬁve body units prepackaged, and refined foods; getting early may be measured from the navel to the pubic bone, morning sunlight every day; and taking brisk and 12 body units make up the area from the daily walks. These include also effective as energy-boosting, anti-infective the following: the Alexander Technique; blood cleansers. Feldenkrais Method; Trager Approach; Rolﬁng; myofascial release; Aston-Patterning; Hellerwork; body map A technique for the diagnosis of ill- Barral visceral manipulation; Bowen Therapy; acu- ness or dysfunction. A Chinese tongue map, for pressure; acupuncture; massage; (Oriental body- example, shows each region of the tongue in cor- work: shiatsu, jin shin jyutsu); reﬂexology; Bonnie relation with other organs and structures of the Prudden Myotherapy; bioenergetics; Therapeutic body. The area at the back of the tongue relates to Touch; Healing Touch; Reiki; polarity therapy; the uro-genital organs; the midsection relates to Reichian therapy; hakomi; the Rosen Method; and the liver, gallbladder, and other digestive organs; the Rubenfeld Synergy Method. Chinese doc- wraps, hydrotherapy, enemas, compresses, over- tors also observe the color and condition of the heating therapy, and any other form of a “laying on tongue, very often keys to diagnosing a problem. A of hands” that is meant to facilitate a transfer of dark coating on the tongue, for instance, indicates energy from one person to another for the purpose a toxicity in the body, and a dry, shiny tongue of healing. Schuessler’s system of homeopathic practice century American herbalist Samuel Thomson and the golden age of homeopathy in America. When 22-year-old Thomson’s young Medica with Repertory (Philadelphia: Boericke and daughter contracted scarlet fever in 1791, and the Runyon, 1927). In 1805, a yellow Therapeutic Astrology: Using the Birth Chart in Psy- fever (or some other deadly fever) epidemic broke chotherapy and Spiritual Counseling (Berkeley, Calif.
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